Visitor Driven Research and White's Institute
In 2017, an individual from the Pine Ridge Reservation (also called the Pine Ridge Agency) contacted me with the hopes of obtaining information about a relative who was buried in Wabash County. Since that time the topic has come up again several times, be it from scholars researching Indian Boarding Schools to other members of the Oglala Sioux looking for other family members and stories about them. This was my first contact with the topic of Indian Boarding Schools as a museum professional.
Indian Boarding Schools have been placed in the national spotlight recently because of the crimes being revealed in Canada and its boarding schools. It does not surprise me that interest has picked up in the past several weeks regarding this topic. White’s Institute (1883-1895), from its very founding, was intended to be a place of education for all people, regardless of skin color. When the federal government began to seek out religiously affiliated institutions to place Native American students, White’s was a natural choice.
Indiana was home to two Native American Boarding Schools, one in Wabash County at White’s and the other at St. Joseph’s Normal Indian School in Rensselaer, Indiana. The Museum is not in possession of much of the records from this time period at White’s and the topic has not been especially well researched although several students who attended White’s became nationally and internationally famous, such as Zitkala-Ša and Will Jones.
The subject of boarding schools for Native Students is complex and painful. While on the one hand, students gained valuable knowledge and skills alongside lifelong relationships, and many became renown artists, authors, and activists as a result of their education, the program explicitly sought to Christianize students and strip them of their native cultures and customs. The trauma of cultural suppression is dealt with at length in Zitkala-Ša’s memoirs, and the dual identity that boarding schools created in students is something that is still affecting Native communities today. It should also be mentioned that the perpetrators of this cultural suppression thought they were doing a good and necessary thing and so they were often blind to the pain they were causing their wards.